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Source: Pearson Scott Foresman Reading Street Assessment Handbook



Reading Terminology



Phonemic awareness-the ability to identify the separate sounds, or phonemes, that make up spoken words, and to alter and arrange sounds to create new words


Phonics-The study of how letters represent sounds in written language


Print awareness-Understanding the relationship between oral and written language, that written language carries meaning, and that print is read from left to right


Alphabetic knowledge-Knowledge of the shapes, names, and sounds of letters


Alphabetic principle-Understanding that there is a systematic relationship between sounds and letters


Decoding-The process of analyzing letter-sound patterns in words to ascertain meaning


Knowledge of high frequency words-Sometimes called sight words, these are the words that appear most often in our written language


Fluency-The ability to effortlessly, quickly, and accurately decode letters, words, sentences, and passages


Vocabulary-Acquisition and development of word meanings significantly contribute to overall text comprehension


Context clues-Words or phrases surrounding an unknown word helping readers identify its meaning


Text comprehension-The overarching goal of reading---the active process of constructing meaning from text. A complex process in which readers apply their prior knowledge and experiences, use their understanding about text (types, structures, features, etc...) and intentionally employ an array of before-,during-, and after- reading strategies and skills in order to attain meaning.


Literal questions-Ideas explicitly stated in the text, although not necessarily verbatim


Inferential questions-Based on the theme, key concepts, and major ideas of the passage, and often require children to interpret infomation from across parts of the text and to connect knowledge from the text with their own general background knowledge