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                                                                            Emergent Readers



Reading Play

  • Play includes pretend reading
  • “Reads” pictures in a book by naming pictures, by making up a story while looking at pictures, and by telling the general sequence when turning pages.
  • “Reads” the story in a book from memory.
  • Uses a “reading voice" and reading expressions (Once upon a time…)


Reading Awareness

  • Uses the language of literacy (top, bottom, before, after, same, different, etc.)
  • Identifies the beginning, middle, and end of a story, with the main ideas coming first and details added later.
  • Demonstrates awareness that language can be written down and read later.
  • Visually follows top to bottom, left to right cues as teacher points.
  • Shows curiosity about environmental print.
  • Differentiates between pictures and words. 


Reading Skills

  • Realizes that symbols stand for entities and that a word is a symbolic representation of its meaning; from this realization the child discovers that the length of a word does not depend on the physical characteristics of the object itself.
  • Recognizes own written name.
  • Sees first letter of own name in environmental print.
  • Sees other letters of own name in environmental print.
  • Differentiates between words and spaces; recognizes where one stops and another begins.
  • Reads single words from rote in environmental print.
  • Reads single words from rote in books, uses picture cues to predict words in books, and uses print cues as well as picture cues to predict words in books.
  • Understands that words are composed of alphabet letters that consistently say the same sound (phonemic awareness).
  • Looks for word patterns.
  • Demonstrates knowledge of letter-sound relationships (phonemic awareness) to read words. Reading progresses from reading initial phonemes to final phonemes to medial phonemes.




Components of a Balanced Literacy Program



All of the following contribute to producing literate citizens of the 21st  Century.



Reading Aloud: Teacher reads aloud to the students


  • Provides a adult model of fluent reading
  • Develops a sense of story/text
  • Develops vocabulary
  • Encourages prediction
  • Builds a community of readers
  • Develops active listening


Shared Reading: Teacher and students read text together


  • Demonstrates awareness of text
  • Develops sense of story or content
  • Promotes reading strategies
  • Develops fluency and phrasing
  • Increases comprehension
  • Encourages politeness and respect


Guided Reading: Teacher introduces a selection at student’s instructional level


  • Promotes reading strategies
  • Increases comprehension
  • Encourages independent reading
  • Expands belief in own ability


Independent Reading: Students read independently


  • Encourages strategic reading
  • Increases comprehension
  • Supports writing development
  • Extends experiences with a variety of written texts
  • Promotes reading for enjoyment and information
  • Develops fluency
  • Fosters self-confidence by reading familiar and new text
  • Provides opportunities to use mistakes as learning opportunities