English Rules Study Guide
Parts of Speech:
- A noun is the name of a person, place, object or idea.
- A verb is a word that shows action, links another word to the subject, helps another verb or merrily indicates existence.
- A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.
- An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, which one, or how many.
- An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It tells how, when, or where.
- A preposition is a word that shows how a noun or a pronoun is related to some other word in the sentence.
- A conjunction is a word or group of words that joins words, phrases and clauses.
- An interjection is an exclamatory word that is not grammatically related to the other words in the sentence. It must be separated from the sentence by punctuation.
- An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies the noun or pronoun that comes directly before it. It is set off from the rest of the sentence with commas.
Titles: Capitalize the first word, last word, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions with five or more letters.
Underline if handwriting or italicize if typing the titles of boats, books, movies, magazines, newspapers, and CDs if the title is used in a sentence.
“Quote” the titles of chapters, short stories, poems, articles, and songs if the title is used in a sentence.
Helping verbs: am, is, are, was, were—be, being, been—do, does, did—have, has, had—may, might, must—can, could, shall, should, will, would
Plurals: When a word ends in ch, sh, x, s, or z add -es to make it plural.
When a word end in f or fe change the f to a v and add es.
When a word ends with consonant and a y change the y to an i and add –es.
When a word ends with a vowel and a y just add s.
When a word ends with a vowel and an o just add s.
When a word ends with a consonant and an o, check the dictionary.
Conjunctions: and, or, but, nor, yet, for, so, get a comma after them if there is a complete sentence (clause) after them; everything else gets a semicolon before before and a comma afterwards except for because. Why? Just because. :)