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Multisensory Phonics Instruction

Orton Gillingham (OG) is the primary phonics program used the resource room.  It is a multisensory, systematic approach used to teach students important phonics skills.  Here are some key concepts from that program, Wilson Fundations, and also Project Read:
  • c vs. k - The letters c and k both capture the same sound.  However, they are used with different vowel sounds.  The letter c is followed by the short vowel sound of a, o, and u.  The letter k is followed by the short vowel sound of i and e.  Here are some examples:  cat, cab, kiss, kid. 


  • ck - This digraph (2 letters that make one sound) is used at the end of a word immediately following a short vowel sound (pack, sick, dock, back).


  • Bonus Letter Word/Fizzle Word - A fizzle word has one short vowel followed by the sound of f, s, l, or z.  Students will double the f, s, l, or z in a fizzle word.  Here are examples of fizzle words:  pass, jazz, fill, and dollThere are exceptions to this rule:  as, if, of, has, pal, quiz, and gas. 


  • Sliding Sounds/Welded Sounds/Glued Sounds - ank, ink, onk, unk, ang, ing, ong, and ung are referred to as sliding sounds because the vowel slides into the consonants nk or ng. 


  •  H Brothers - The H Brothers are ch, wh, th, and sh.  They are also called digraphs, which are two letters that make one sound. 


  • Beginning Consonant Blends - A beginning consonant blend is two consonants at the beginning of a word.  Each sound of the two letters is heard and blended together.  


  • sc vs. sk - The beginning consonant blend sc is usually used when followed by the short vowel sounds a and o such as in scan and Scott.  Sk is usually followed by the short vowel sounds of i and e (example: skip, sketch). 


  • Syllable - A syllable is a word or part of a word with one talking vowel.


  • Closed Syllable - A closed syllable has a vowel followed by a consonant.  The vowel sound in a closed syllable is short.  Here are some examples of closed syllables:  cat, rab, if, cloth. 


  • Open Syllable - An open syllable has a vowel followed by no consonant.  The vowel sound in an open syllable is long.  Here are some of open syllables:  I, pre, si, me.   


  • Cluster - A cluster is three consecutive consonants at the beginning of a word.  Here are examples:  splash, spring, stretch. 


  • Ending Consonant Blend - An ending consonant blend is two consonants at the end of a word.  The sounds of both consonants are heard.  Here are some words with ending consonant blends:  best, desk, crisp


  • -tch - These 3 letters come at the end of a one-syllable word and right after a short vowel sound.  The t is silent.  Here are some examples of words with -tch:  catch, pitch, hutch.  There are four exceptions to this rule:  much, such, which, and rich.  


  • r-controlled vowels - ar, er ,ir, ur, and or; The sound of r changes the vowel sound so that the vowel sound is not long or short.  An r-controlled sound is marked with a diacritical mark (~).   


  • Magic final e - Magic final e comes at the end of a word with a -vce (vowel-conconant-e) pattern.  The e is magic because it jumps over the consonant and makes the vowel sound long.  The sound of e is silent.  Some words with this pattern are time, stove, tune, Pete, and vase


  • Adding -ing to a Magic Final e Word - When -ing comes to play, magic e runs away (drive becomes driving, close becomes closing). 


  • Adding -ing to a Short Vowel Word - Double the single consonant that follows the short vowel when adding -ing (sit-sitting, hop-hopping).  If the short vowel is already followed by two consonants, just add -ing (jump-jumping, camp-camping, pack-packing). 

  • Digraph Consonant Blend - This occurs when a digraph is next to a consonant.  The sound of the digraph is blended with the consonant sound.  A digraph consonant blend has a total of 2 sounds (the digraph is one, the consonant is the other).  Here are some examples of words with digraph consonant blends:  shrimp, bench, throw.

  • -ic - Any multisyllabic word ending with the sound /ik/ is spelled with the letter c.  Some words that follow this rule are public, picnic, and plastic.      
There are always exceptions to the rules! 
These are some basic guidelines for the spelling of the English language. 
More concepts will be added throughout the school year.